alcohols, by three basic high pressure syntheses from gases derived from coal.
Left - Figure 112. Vertical
aerial view of Leuna Works, taken by the Luftwaffe in August, 1944.
War History of a Typical Nitrogen and Methanol Plant
Ammoniakwerk Merseburg (Leuna), a typical plant producing ammonia and
methanol (integrated with other chemicals and liquid fuels production), is
located at Leuna near the Saale River. It is over 11,000 ft long, up to 3,500 ft
wide and occupies 757 acres, of which area 23 percent is occupied by buildings
and tanks. The plant produces liquid fuels, ammonia, methanol, and the higher
alcohols, by three basic high pressure syntheses from gases derived from coal,
coke, air, oxygen, and steam. Chemical derivatives from the basic materials
comprise some 80 products including synthetic fuels and lubricants, fertilizers,
acids, various solvents, organic chemicals, plastics, etc. In 1943 the monthly
production of the plant was 21,000 tons of nitrogen, over 14,900 tons of
methanol, and 600 tons of isobutyl alcohol. This was approximately 32 percent of
the synthetic nitrogen and 72 percent of the methanol production of Germany.
Some idea of the size of the plant, may be gained from the following figures. It
aconsumed annually over 1,000,000 tons of by-product coke, 400,000 tons of brown
coal tons of brown coal; gas production in the plant for process and fuel
exceeded 390,000,000 cu. ft. daily; water was consumed a rate of up to 180,000
gpm; the steam generating capacity was 4,300,000 lb per hour and the connected
electric load 390,000 kw (see Figures 111, 112).